The transistor symbol

Together with Maple Martin I browsed through our group’s library and came across a couple of books by Prof. Kjell Jeppsson (from Chalmers University of Technology). One of the books, “Praktisk transistorteknik” (1965), triggered me – of course. Browsing through the pages, I realize that the transistor symbol he used in his figures looked unfamiliar to me. It was the 1965 version of the Swedish standard symbol for the junction transistor.

Where does the symbol come from? My short-story/interpretation.

So, in case you might be taking the course in analog electronics at the moment: this post aligns quite well with the topic we are currently reading. Take a quick glance at my impressionistic skills below. I have depicted the first point-contact transistor (to the left) and the “first” junction transistor (to the right). It is pretty obvious from where the – today, widely used – bipolar symbol comes. The symbol is found at the bottom left of the picture. Above that my redrawing of the famous Bell Labs photo. The v-shaped piece of plastic, on which the phosphor-bronze traces where applied, guides the emitter and collector to and from the germanium plate which is attached to the metal frame which the base in turn is connected to. The “housing” around the transistor is modeled by a circle around the lines.

To the right in the picture, we see a sketch of the junction transistor. A more homogeneous solution. From left to right we have the emitter, base, and collector. Here the currents go “through” the semiconductor whereas in the point contact transistor it goes on the surface (well, arguably, but true to a first degree …). Looking at the international symbol, it does not really make sense – if one has time to care about those kind of things. The Swedish standard institute (SSI) symbol, from 1965, is depicted below the junction transistor. It turns out to be a bit more of logic behind that one. The base “cuts” the emitter and collector and the current goes straight through the base. However, the symbol lost the battle.

Transistor symbols

Transistor symbols

I guess the thing was that the junction transistor was invented and patented quite soon after the delivery of the 1947 Christmas present in the shape of a point-contact transistor at Bell labs. Due to the more integrated nature of the junction transistor it was also a better choice for most users. In addition, the junction transistor has much higher gain (200 vs 20), was less noisy, and could take on higher power levels. (Not as high as for tubes which were even faster. In fact the point-contact transistor initially had a higher gain-bandwidth product.). Due to this rapid development, the old symbol made it into the books. There was no point in developing a new one (unless it was exported to another continent).

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2 thoughts on “The transistor symbol

  1. The classic symbol could possibly be giving a more “physical” representation (although considering the number of existent esoteric BJT structures it is rather not very plausible). For example the classic planar NPN is often seen physically as in the image below:

    https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6b/NPN_BJT_%28Planar%29_Cross-section.svg

    The collector acts as the substrate of the device (thus the bar | in the symbol), the base is a p-implant on the base, and we have another implant – the emitter.

    The Schottky transistor’s symbol and structure have a slightly overlapping base-emitter contact forming a junction between the base and collector. It’s symbol happens to have a twist on the “bar”, which I presume represents the overlapping base contact with the emitter.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schottky_transistor

    Hmm, okay, I admit, the symbol still doesn’t make much sense.

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